If you happen to be the proud owner of a feline companion, you may have experienced the delightful surprise of waking up in the middle of the night to find your kitty wreaking havoc on the throw rugs or hissing at some unseen entity outside the window (or perhaps at the friendly ghost that haunts your home). These adorable, albeit occasionally bothersome, nighttime antics may lead you to believe that your cat possesses extraordinary night vision and is therefore nocturnal.
While it is true that cats have excellent vision in the dark, they are not actually nocturnal creatures (no vampire kitties here, I'm afraid). The behavior of cats is actually described as crepuscular, which means they are most active during twilight. Their exceptional ability to see in low light conditions, coupled with their other senses, equips them well for their post-bedtime adventures.
But can cats truly see better in the dark? Although our feline friends are capable of seeing in even the darkest nights (which seems to be every night in 2020), it is not necessarily true that they see better in the dark compared to daytime. Cat eyes have evolved to assist them in their nighttime activities, but they still function best in daylight. The reason we often assume cats have superior night vision is due to their increased activity levels after twilight. However, do not be fooled by your lazy couch potato of a cat. They can carry out search-and-destroy missions with ease regardless of the lighting conditions; they simply lack the motivation to show off their skills.
So, how does a cat's night vision differ from that of humans? The differences can be traced back to the retina of the eye, where cells called photoreceptors reside. There are two types of these cells – rods and cones. Cones are responsible for perceiving colors in daylight, whereas rods aid in night vision and peripheral vision. Cats possess a higher number of rod receptors and fewer cone receptors compared to humans. This explains their ability to see well in the dark but their limited color perception. Humans, on the other hand, have a higher concentration of cones, enabling us to see colors more vividly but making us less adept at navigating in low light situations.
The presence of a structure called the tapetum lucidum also contributes to a cat's nocturnal vision. This thin, reflective layer at the back of their eyes "bounces" and amplifies light in dimly lit environments, giving their eyes a shining appearance in the dark. Alicen Tracey, DVM, a veterinarian at Den Herder Veterinary Hospital in Waterloo, Iowa, explains that this is why the eyes of cats and dogs tend to have a glowing effect in the dark.
While cats may not perceive the same array of colors as humans, they are still capable of seeing certain hues. Their vision predominantly consists of shades of gray, with hints of blue, yellow, and possibly a touch of green. This limited color perception does not hinder them in any way, as their exceptional eyesight enables them to detect small movements and pick up on minute details, even on moonless nights.
Ever wondered why your cat appears puzzled by your new haircut or that mustache your wife implored you not to grow (was it really worth it?)? This could be due to their difficulty in seeing objects up close with clarity. Interestingly, cats also experience blurrier vision for faraway objects than humans do, but they surpass us in terms of their wider peripheral vision.
Additionally, cats possess other extraordinary sensory abilities. Aside from their remarkable eyes, they have an exceptional sense of smell. Scientists have discovered that a cat's sense of smell may be up to 15 times stronger than that of a human, potentially even surpassing that of dogs. This heightened sense of smell is not solely attributed to their adorable heart-shaped noses. Cats possess a specialized organ called the vomeronasal organ, located on the roof of their mouths. This organ allows them to simultaneously taste and smell objects deeply. If you have ever observed your cat curling their lip, making a funny facial expression, or licking something while inhaling, they may be utilizing this organ to gather more information about the world around them.
In addition to their acute sense of smell, cats have highly sensitive hearing. They can accurately determine the origin of a distant sound due to their large ears, allowing them to detect quiet, high-pitched noises from great distances. Sounds such as the squeak of a mouse or the buzzing of a fly can be easily detected by your feline friend, making them even more effective hunters.
Given their exceptional abilities, it is advisable to keep your cats indoors at night to ensure their safety. Just because your cat may appear docile and lazy when basking in the sun during the day does not mean they will not transform into expert hunters once they decide to venture out. If you wish to prevent unpleasant surprises like finding squishy creatures on your doorstep and protect the local wildlife, it is best to keep your furry companion safely indoors.
In conclusion, cats possess remarkable vision in low light conditions, although they do not necessarily see better in the dark compared to daytime. Their eyes are optimized for twilight activities and they excel at detecting movements and details, even in the absence of moonlight. Their senses of smell and hearing are also highly developed, contributing to their prowess as natural hunters. So, the next time you admire your mysterious and enigmatic feline friend, remember that they may not have supernatural vision, but they are certainly equipped with extraordinary sensory abilities that make them fascinating creatures to behold.