A study by veterinarian Lisa Horn from the University of Vienna, Australia found that dogs and cats see their owners as parents. The study involved 22 puppies divided into three groups. Results showed that dogs that were close to their parents were more cheerful, playful, and confident, while those completely separated from their parents felt insecure and fearful. When tested with strangers, even when accompanied, the dogs were uninterested in games or food and only waited for their parents to return. Horn concluded that animals belong to a "security area" and feel motivated, happy, and comfortable when close to their human parents.